Omissions? He ruled first over the Principality of Calenberg, a subdivision of the duchy, then over the Lüneburg subdivision. After he had secured the assistance Sweden and Mecklenburg by concluding a treaty of friendship and security, Duke Henry, soon to be followed by his brother, Bernard, took the town of Uelzen as his residence, which forced the town to announce its withdrawal from the Sate and to pay homage to the dukes of Lüneburg. Consequently his efforts were aimed primarily at the redeeming them again (Wiedereinlösung). Otto asserted his rule through the prosecution of numerous feuds against the lesser nobility, which enabled him to achieve consolidate his ducal authority within the state. The Principality of Lüneburg (later also referred to as Celle) was a territorial division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg within the Holy Roman Empire, immediately subordinate to the emperor. [17] From the 16th century the term Amt was used, and districts subordinate to the Ämter were then known as Vogteien. Magnus Torquatus had already died in 1373, so the treaty between the two contending houses was further reinforced by the marriage of his two eldest sons, Frederick and Bernard I, to the two daughters of Wenceslas and by the marriage of Magnus's widow to Albert of Saxe-Wittenberg. Coins from the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. The official language is German. When the main line of descent became extinct in 1884, the German Emperor withheld the rightful heir, the Crown Prince of Hanover, from takin… From 1378, the seat of the principality was in Celle. In 1592, after the death of Duke William, the territory was enlarged with the Ämter of Hitzacker, Lüchow and Warpke, but Henry's demands for a transfer of sovereignty were not met. Updates? It was not until after the Battle of Winsen in 1388, when Wenceslas lost his life, that the Wittenbergs gave up their claims and the principality was finally secured by the Welfs. When Otto died in 1549, the Amt of Harburg should have reverted to the dukes of Celle, but Otto's son, Otto the Second, succeeded in 1560 in having a new regulation added to the severance agreement of 1527. The Wolfenbüttel Line retained its independence, except from 1807 to 1813, when it and Hanover were merged into the Napoleonic Kingdom of Westphalia. they levied the manorial obligations due to the Duke. They drew lots: the lot fell to the second youngest brother, George, who married Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1617. These chambers were each responsible only for a specific area: the consistory (Konsistorium) for questions on church matters, the Kriegsrat for military affairs and the Haushaltsrat for financial management. To secure the support of towns and the lower nobility, both the Welfs and the Ascanians were forced to give the estates wide privileges, and enfeoff them with numerous rights and castles. [16], Beginning in the 13th century, advocacies (Vogteien) emerged in the Principality of Lüneburg as providers of local administration, sometimes in parallel with the existing magistracies and sometimes based on them. Formation. Through the support of the Hanseatic towns of Hamburg and Lübeck, Lüneburg achieved military superiority, so that the Celle dukes sued for peace with their opponents. When the Principality of Lüneburg merged with the Electorate of Hanover, the Lüneburg Army was united with the Hanoverian Army. In 1665, Christian Louis died, and was temporarily succeeded by George's third son John, who usurped the throne over George's second son George William, who then held the Principality of Calenberg. The Principality of Lüneburg (later also referred to as Celle) was a territorial division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg within the Holy Roman Empire, immediately subordinate to the emperor. Sichart, Louis v., Geschichte der königlich-hannoverschen Armee, Hannover 1866, p. 1 ff. In 1428 there was a further division of the Welf estate between the 2 brothers and their uncle, Bernard, Prince of Brunswick. In 1728 his nephew George Louis , elector of Hanover and, as George I, king of Great Britain and Ireland, was recognized as heir by Emperor Charles VI; thus, Lauenburg became attached to Hanover. It existed from 1269 until 1705 and its territory lay within the modern-day state of Lower Saxony in Germany. Coins from the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. When Duke Francis died childless in 1549, the territory of Gifhorn went back to Celle. Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburgball was born as a 2ball, later adopted by Germaniaball, Franciaball, East Franciaball and HREball. In 1671 the barony of Dannenberg went back to the Welf line in Celle. At the 1527 Landtag recess, even those nobles who had been hostile declared their support for the new faith. Example: A search for "1 franc" is more precise than 1 franc. Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburgball Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg ... Preceded by. The principality was named after its first capital, Lüneburg (also called Lunenburg in English), which was ruled jointly by all Brunswick-Lüneburg lines until 1637. In the 16th century, in addition to noble councillors, who by this time were known as Landräte, there were often learned, foreign advisors. [15], In the Principality of Lüneburg, in addition to the chancery court and the courts at Amt level there existed numerous aristocratic patrimonial courts (Patrimonialgerichte), whose responsibilities were confined to the jurisdiction of specific groups of people and areas. Beneath him were the scribes, most of whom came from the Lüneburg clergy. The capital is Lüneburg and the population is around 353,000. Maps by numerous cartographers, as well as Willem and Joan Blaeu. When the Principality of Lüneburg emerged as a result of the division of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1269, the domain of the Lüneburg princes consisted of a large number of territorial rights in the region of Lüneburg. You may use an asterisk as a wildcard. In addition, they were the administrative centre for the ducal estate, i.e. Ernest had himself studied at Wittenberg and had been in contact with Luther's teachers there. Ernst Schubert in Geschichte Niedersachsens, Vol. However, Ernest succeeded in asserting himself, and in enforced reduction of the state debt. 2, p. 656ff. For example, Celle was still responsible for foreign policy issues and the Gifhorn nobility remained part of the Lüneburg estates. In charge of the Amt was a bailiff-cum-magistrate (Amtmann), who was appointed by the duke. The Duchy remained independent and joined first the North German Confederation and in 1871 the German Empire. Then in 1610, they agreed that the Principality of Lüneburg and all its dependencies should be his and his descendants as an indivisible whole. The Ämter exercised the duke's territorial rights and were involved in the raising of sovereign taxes. The old office Kammerrat was replaced by a privy councillor (Geheime Rat) who was primarily responsible for matters of foreign policy. As a result, the Emperor decreed that the Archbishop of Cologne and the Count of Schaumburg were to govern on their behalf. Importantly, they were also the first level of jurisdiction for all civil disputes and lesser criminal cases. Hanover was formed by the union of several dynastic divisions of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, with the sole exception of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.From 1714 to 1837, it was joined in a personal union with the United Kingdom, which terminated upon the accession in Britain of Queen Victoria, as in Hanover, a woman could not rule if there was a male descendant. Lauenburg, former duchy of northern Germany, stretching from south of Lübeck to the Elbe and bounded on the west and east, respectively, by the former duchies of Holstein and Mecklenburg, an area that since 1946 has been part of the federal Land (state) of Schleswig-Holstein. During his reign the baroque theatre was built that is still open today, the French Garden was laid out and palace façade designed in its current baroque form. After the murder of their brother Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, brothers Bernard and Henry redivided the land, Henry receiving the territory of Wolfenbüttel. [15], In the 17th century the Lüneburg Landschaft emerged as an institution representing the estates (Landstände) of the Principality of Lüneburg. His second major work was the introduction of the Protestant Reformation. At the head of the ducal chancery, the Kanzlei, the highest authority mentioned in the documents was the chief secretary or Kanzleivorsteher. Otto relinquished his princedom in 1527 and was compensated with the Amt of Harburg. An attempt on 21 October 1371, St. Ursula's Day, to overthrow Lüneburg militarily and to secure the old ducal rights, failed. In the course of the clashes that now arose between the dukes and the town of Lüneburg, numerous battles were fought across the entire country. George William German language: Georg Wilhelm (Herzberg am Harz, 26 January 1624 28 August 1705, Wienhausen) was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. After his death in 1705, George of Hanover, who was both the benefactor of Georges William's 1658 renunciation in favour of his younger brother Ernest Augustus and the husband of George William's morganatic daughter Sophie Dorothea, inherited the state of Lüneburg, which was merged into the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg and finally lost its independence. Add Prince of Wolfenbuttel to your PopFlock.com topic list or share. [20], From 1562 the highest, ecclesiastical court was the consistory (Konsistorium) in Celle, which was responsible for all marital matters, cases between churches and cases between the laity and the clergy. The instruction issued by their father in 1318 whereby the principality would be divided after his death between Otto III and his brother, William II, was ignored by the brothers and in 1330 they assumed joint control of an undivided state. Following Henry's resignation ten years later, William officially reigned alone until his death in 1592, but due to serious mental problems, he only played a very limited part in political life and spent his last years in mental derangement. Not until the acquisition of numerous counties and rights in the 13th and 14th centuries did the rulers of Lüneburg succeed in building a unified state. [12], As well as the ducal counsellors, who at that time were noble (edelfrei) vassals, a number of medieval court offices, who had emerged in the 12th century, can still be found in the 13th. Ernst Schubert in Geschichte Niedersachsens, Vol. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Their magistrates (Gorichter) were usually freely elected by the community under their jurisdiction, but some were appointed by the duke or a lesser noble.[16]. In 1618 several council chambers (Ratsstuben) were set up in accordance with a new ordinance, the Regimentsordnung. Here the local families, the von Bernstorffs and the von Lüneburgs, were not only responsible for lower and higher courts, but also ran the administration of the principality on behalf of the duke. In addition, the two capitals, Lüneburg and Brunswick, remained in the common ownership of the House of Welf until 1512 and 1671 respectively. Lauenburg was integrated into Prussia’s Schleswig-Holstein in 1876. According to Welf house rules and the desire of William, Duke Magnus II Torquatus of Brunswick would have been the rightful heir. Maps in Latin. [3], The Principality of Lüneburg was created by the division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, a state that had been formed in 1235 from the allodial lands of the Welfs in Saxony and given as an imperial fief to Otto the Child, a nephew of Henry the Lion. Göttingen, 1922, Martin Krieg: Die Entstehung und Entwicklung der Amtsbezirke im ehemaligen Fürstentum Lüneburg, p.103ff. After the Principality of Grubenhagen had returned to Celle in 1617, the Dannenberg line received the Amt of Wustrow as compensation. The necessary tax increases led to serious clashes with the estates. Further important reforms included the Lutheran Church Order, adopted in 1564, which practically completed the Reformation in Lüneburg, as well as the aulic court and administrative ordinances (the Hofgerichtsordnung and Polizeiordnung). The government was led by a so-called governor (Statthalter), who oversaw the administration of the court and royal office. [19], In the 13th and 14th centuries the regional magistracies (Gogerichte) were responsible for the administration of justice. Duke Otto was followed by his sons, Otto III of Lüneburg and William of Lüneburg. Move to "Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg" In order to conform to the usual convention, e.g. However, after Ernest's death in 1611, and given the difficulty of ever new divisions, the remaining brothers made another agreement in 1612. The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Herzogtum Braunschweig und Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was a historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire.wikipedia. Other examples include: Duchy of Schleswig, Duchy of Saxony, Duchy of Prussia, Duchy … The House of Brunswick originated from the Italian House of Este. These offices are mentioned up to the 14th century, but had largely lost their political influence, by the turn of that century. He initially reigned jointly with his brother, Albert the Tall, until the partition of the duchy in 1269, when John became the first ruler of the newly created Principality of Lüneburg. The rulers of Lüneburg, like those of other principalities within the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, were entitled to use the title "Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg" as well as "Prince of Lüneburg". Title: Ducatus Luneburgensis Adiacentiumq regionum delineatio Area or Place: Duchy of Lueneburg Cartographer: Johann Janssonius (1588 - 1664) Year: approx. In 1446 he was followed by his brother, Frederick the Pious, who abdicated, however, in 1457 in favour of his sons, Bernard and Otto, in order to enter the Franciscan abbey at Celle. The duchy was abolished in 1918. Corrections? see Holy Roman Empire task force page and Wiki practice, I propose we move this article to Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. It existed from 1269 until 1705 and its territory lay within the modern-day state of Lower Saxony in Germany. It existed from 1269 until 1705 and its territory lay within the modern-day state of Lower Saxony in Germ The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg was formed out of the possessions of senior branch of the House of Brunswick. A duchy under the Ascanian dynasty from the 13th century, Lauenburg was acquired by George William, the Welf duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle, in 1702. When he came to power, all the offices (Ämter) were pledged, with the exception of the Schlossvogtei. John (c. 1242 – 13 December 1277), a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1252 until his death. Prince of Wolfenbuttel at popflock.com He initially reigned jointly with his brother, Albert the Tall, until the partition of the duchy in 1269, when John became the first ruler of the newly created Principality of Lüneburg. After the Danish–Prussian War of 1864, it passed to Prussia; Prussia’s king, William I, became duke of Lauenburg. In addition to participating in legislation and approving taxes, it had a right to represent various administrative bodies and was thus involved in the administration of the Principality. You may use an asterisk as a wildcard. Their rule was characterized primarily by the financial constraints under which the country continued to suffer in the wake of the Lüneburg War of Succession. Göttingen, 1922. The chancery court also acted as a court of appeal as did, from 1536, the royal court in Celle that was permanently in session. To begin with they only supplemented the armies raised by the knights; later they largely replaced them in the 17th century because of their military superiority. For example, there were so-called "internal, stake, fence, village, road and field courts" (Binnen-, Pfahl-, Zaun-, Dorf-, Straßen- und Feldgerichte. His rule, like his father's, was dominated by an enforced policy of debt relief. [2], After the death of George's brother Frederick of Lüneburg, George's eldest son Christian Louis inherited Lüneburg in 1648 and became the founder of the new line of Lüneburg. Thereafter the Ämter were responsible for the initial handling of civil law matters for the majority of subjects in the principality. In medieval times the area had been part of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg.Later the majority of it belonged to Hanover and then Prussia n a city in N Germany, in Lower Saxony: capital of the duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1235 to 1369; prominent Hanse town; saline springs. The brothers William and Henry received the land between the Deister and the Leine, which was later to become the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, having acquired the Principality of Calenberg; and their uncle, Bernard, received the Principality of Lüneburg, thus becoming the progenitor of the Middle House of Lüneburg. Only the Duke's bodyguard and the soldiers guarding the residence in Celle were in the permanent employ of the dukes. Little information is available about exactly how these advocacies were established. The Ämter reported to the ducal treasury, the Rentkammer, in Celle. Detailed information about the coin 1 Goldgulden, Bernhard, Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, with pictures and collection and swap management : mintage, descriptions, … The eldest son, Francis Otto assumed power in 1555, but abdicated as early as 1559 in favour of his brothers, Henry and William. He was born into the royal family of Ernest Augustus, the duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and his wife, Sophia of the Palatinate. 2, p. 593ff. View Videos or join the Prince of Wolfenbuttel discussion. Another top priority was their political support for the towns, which were striving to develop themselves economically. Sichart, Geschichte der königlich-hannoverschen Armee, p. 119 ff. Only with the emergence of Celle as the ducal seat in the middle of the 15th century did it take a clear shape, although individual advisors were members of the duke's inner circle for a long time.[14][15]. Their powers of jurisdiction were transferred to the Ämter as the latter became established. Although the Principality of Lüneburg was not directly involved in these conflicts, the dukes in Celle made their troops available to foreign forces in return for payment for their services.[23]. The Kammerrat was responsible for key policy decisions, particularly in financial matters and the area of foreign policy, while the duties of the chancery were restricted merely to administration. When William II of Lüneburg died in 1369 without a son, the first house of Lüneburg became extinct. In 1592, all the brothers agreed to entrust the government of the whole realm (with limitation) to Ernest, initially for eight years, and in 1600 for a further ten. There was no clear division of responsibility; the choice of court was left to the plaintiff. A New & Exact Map of the Electorate of Brunswick-Lunenburg (Duchy of Braunschweig - Lüneburg) This is an original, old-colored copper engraved map of the Duchy of Braunschweig - Lüneburg by Herman Moll, from around 1720. The two brothers reigned jointly until the death of Otto III in 1352, leaving William in sole charge until his own death in 1369. The Duchy of Lüneburg, Lüneburg, Lunenburg, is a small constitutional monarchy on the northern border of the Holy Roman Empire.It is bordered by Denmark to the north and Brandenburg, Brunswick and Verden to the south. After 1536 financial matters were the responsibility of the treasury (Rentenkammer), headed by the treasurer (Rentmeister). To search an expression, simply put quotation marks around it. Life. John (c. 1242 – 13 December 1277), a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1252 until his death. 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