Kim Phillips-Fein is an associate professor of history at New York University and the author of the books Invisible Hands: the Businessmen’s Crusade Against the New Deal and Fear City: New York’s Fiscal Crisis and the Rise of Austerity Politics, as well as the editor and co-editor of several collections in political economy, business history, and labor history. Small Wonder (TV Series 1985–1989) cast and crew credits, including actors, actresses, directors, writers and more. Jack Gross Research Writer and Editor Jack Gross is a writer, editor and researcher. VARIED NET The politics of welfare in the 21st century. In commodities markets, purchasing wheat or pork belly futures for the next year would be an example. The buyer and seller are betting on whether the commodities in question will be more or less expensive than they are now. We see a hierarchy of intellectual faculties, in which those forms of human activity that are allegedly mindless are described as “merely mechanical,” even if no machines are involved. Lorraine Daston: It started with a collaborative project on Cold War rationality, when I realized there was a clear difference between traditional philosophical ideas of reason and a form of rationality that came to characterize the American human sciences in the mid-20th century. But the history of science has also been quite permeable to the methods of the social sciences. This interview was originally published in the Los Angeles Review of Books. The best result we found for your search is Jack P Gross age 60s in Robbinsville, NC. ld: If you look at the details of, for example, the British Nautical Almanac, you can see that there have always been people like the moderators who are tasked with cleaning up—people behind the scenes checking and proofreading calculations, and identifying where things go wrong. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/80526148/marcus-frank-gross Jack Gross Class of 2023 Perfect Game Player Profile. Official site of actor Jack Gross. Of course, algorithmic rules also have a long history: the rules of arithmetic are the ur-algorithmic rules, but they constitute a tiny minority of all rules. jg: A final question I want to ask is about your discipline. Never in the history of human rulemaking have we created a rule or a law that did not stub its toe against unanticipated particulars (just ask the Facebook moderators who must clean up after the algorithms). If probability theory were a kind of natural evolution from gambling, it should have emerged in many places, in many epochs, long before the 17th century. (Harvard College Observatory). Amidst the ever expanding reach of all varieties of quantification and algorithmic formalization, both the earliest of Daston's works (the 1988 book Classical Probability in the Enlightenment) and her most recent (an ongoing project on the history of rules) perform this task, uncovering the contingencies that swirled around the invention of mathematical probability, and the rise of algorithmic rule-making. Jack Gross is Chief Executive Officer at ONE Jeanswear Group, Inc. View Jack Gross’s professional profile on Relationship Science, the database of decision makers. In both of these sites, a great deal of calculation had to be done by hand. This is the moment when the unthinkable becomes thinkable. He played the Tuba in the Eastern High School Marching band. ld: History of science lies in the middle of a triangle defined by the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. jg: What makes your research compelling for readers far outside your discipline is that you historicize areas of science whose language or mode of reasoning has become so commonplace that we forget they have origins in methodology. Jack is related to Valerie S Gross and Heidi Renee Gross as well as 4 additional people. One part of this story, then, is the association of calculation first with the division of labor, and then with very cheap labor. Those negative connotations deepen in the 18th century. It’s really important to distinguish between these two groups of people, because they are performing two very different tasks. Little Mephisto — Phenomenal World . Our editors are Maya Adereth and Jack Gross. It’s a nonstarter as a historical hypothesis, even if some of the early applications did deal with gambling and chance. This seems to follow a logic of automating material production, where you look at the total process, disassemble it into component parts, and then deskill and automate it. At that time, most heavy-duty calculation took place either in government administration or in astronomical observations. After about 1870, it was mechanical in a double sense: machines were involved, and the people who did the labor were considered mechanical. Where does this phrase come from? ld: To rehearse the obvious argument against gambling as the triggering factor: people have been gambling since time immemorial. Drawing on a Kaleckian framework which sees output as a function of effective demand, their paper distinguishes between "wage-led" and "profit-led" growth regimes. Rules that are less august in their domain of application than justice—rules, for example, defining the arts and crafts—are always formulated with an eye toward exceptions. Jack Gross . Director at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science since 1995 (emeritus as of Spring 2019), she is the author and co-author of over a dozen books, each stunning in scope and detail, and each demonstrating an ability to make the common uncommon—to illuminate what she calls the “history of the self-evident.”. The histories are in many ways rightfully triumphal—there has clearly been extraordinary technological advance from the clumsy machines of the 17th century to today—but it’s always been the case that effective functioning has been dependent on high-level judgment, often performed by those on the low end of the hierarchical division of labor. In their 2018 paper POTs: Protective Optimization Technologies (updated version soon forthcoming at this same link), authors Rebekah Overdorf, Bogdan Kulynych, Ero Balsa, Carmela Troncoso, and Seda Gürses offer some answers. I have a strong sense that our best reasoning takes place at a semi-conscious level, and I’m very interested in how that lower stratum of reasoning—the intuitions that drive our thinking in philosophy, mathematics, and the rest—is established. The motivating question of the project was to understand how rules that intentionally involved judgment and adjustment to particular cases gave way to an understanding of rules as rigid, mechanical, and universally applicable. Whitepages people search is the most trusted directory. Jack is related to Sandra J Gross and Donald P Gross as well as 3 additional people. There’s another aspect to your initial question: the analogy to the current day. POTs—the analytical framework and the technology—suggest that the inevitable assumptions, flaws, and rote nature of optimization systems can be exploited to produce “solutions that enable optimization subjects to defend from unwanted consequences.” Despite their overbearing nature, optimization systems typically require some degree of user input; POTs uses this as a wedge for individuals and groups marginalized by the optimization system to influence its operation. This is a form of reasoning which is quite familiar to us, even if its quantification by an arithmetic of proof now seems strange: weighing and combining strong evidence with weak evidence in order to come to a reasoned judgment. So, already by Elizabethan times, at least in English, the word had a very pejorative, socially hierarchical meaning attached to it. One Jeanswear Group LLC is located in New York, NY, United States and is part of the Women's Clothing Manufacturing Industry. This labor was called “mechanical,” even though it’s done only with quill pen and paper. Lorraine Daston has published widely in the history of science, including on probability and statistics, scientific objectivity and observation, game theory, monsters, and much else. To have a spectrum, in which there were degrees of probability between the extreme values of truth and falsehood, was a gobsmacking upheaval. The important point is the extent to which this labor has been erased from the triumphal histories of calculation. Jack Gross Class of 2023 Perfect Game Player Profile. There’s another element, however: the actual improvements in mechanical calculation, which allowed for the smoother working of a calculating machine. Select this result to view Jack Gross's phone number, address, and more. Director at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science since 1995 (emeritus as of Spring 2019), she is the author and co-author of over a dozen books, each stunning in scope and detail, and each demonstrating of her ability to make the common uncommon—to illuminate what she calls the “history of the self-evident.”. Could you describe this history and how you came to see the development of calculation as a story about the division of labor? One of the great calculating projects of the late 18th century is the French attempt to recalculate logarithms on a base 10 system as a tribute to the metric system of the French Revolution. Our mission is to address pressing social problems by identifying and implementing high-impact interventions that will translate to real world progress. It also leads you to think about their shared epistemic virtues. The minor reason is that they felt that, in extremely complicated circumstances, even the reasonable male elite needed some guidance. Norman Alden (born Norman Adelberg, September 13, 1924 – July 27, 2012) was an American character actor who performed in television programs and motion pictures.He first appeared on television on The 20th Century Fox Hour in 1957.He provided the … Already in the 18th century at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, forms had been developed that divided the task of a complex calculation into small enough steps—so that, at least at the lower end, the Observatory could employ very cheap schoolboy labor in order to complete them economically. Characteristic of Cold War rationality was the view that certain forms of reasoning, core forms of reasoning, could not only be reduced to rules, but to a certain kind of rule in particular—namely, the algorithm: a rule that can be executed mechanically. Paul Gross is a Canadian producer, singer, director, writer and an actor most known for his role as Constable Benton Fraser in the TV series, Due South. Jack Gross: Regulating the Poor develops a theoretical framework for the function of welfare in the United States—how did you develop this approach to American welfare, and how did you … By the late 19th century, the Bureau of Calculation at the Paris Observatory was entirely feminized. That’s because of an ancient philosophical and still unsolved problem: no universal can foresee all the particulars that it will encounter. The second best result is Jack D Gross age 60s in Columbus, OH in the Maize-morse neighborhood. FREE Background Report. Background Checks Jack was an amazing loving a caring person and a devoted husband and father. I think it’s striking, if you take the longue durée view of the evolution of the sciences, to recall where these divisions of knowledge we take for granted come from. The best result we found for your search is Jackie Gross age 40s in Cimarron, KS. Is that accurate? Jack is related to Richard P Gross and Timothy Gross as well as 3 additional people. The obvious one is the eruption of intellectual novelty, so fascinatingly presented in Hacking’s work. If all who were entitled to government benefits claimed them, they argued, the system would buckle, exposing the magnitude of American poverty and the inadequacy of its safety net. Phenomenal World September 30th, 2019 Little Mephisto — Phenomenal World. There are striking parallels between the story you tell and the contemporary development of artificial intelligence, which often requires immense amounts of unseen human labor. Unlike the work of Ian Hacking and Barbara Shapiro, who were examining the emergence of the concept of probability, your project focused squarely on the emergence of mathematical probability. ld: Right. Eschewing the dominant frameworks used to analyze and critique digital optimization systems, the authors offer an analysis that illuminates fundamental problems with both optimization systems and the proliferating literature that attempts to solve them. Select this result to view Jack P Gross's phone number, address, and more. The content published here does not necessarily reflect the views of the Jain Family Institute. This is a simple economic story: an employer divides labor as finely as possible in order to employ the cheapest labor available on the market—schoolboys in this case, and then the highly educated, extremely conscientious labor of women. That same year, anti-poverty groups around the country formed a broad coalition that became the National Welfare Rights Organization, of which Piven was a founding member. This was crucial to the Enlightenment project. The challenge for judges is that what may seem just in a particular circumstance may be unjust if generalized. It is startling to see how consistent these interests are across my work. One Jeanswear Group LLC has 800 total employees across all of its locations and generates $92.97 million in sales (USD). The goal is to make one’s judgment consistent over the long run. In a conjuncture defined by high ideological tension, in which elite consensus and power structures seem increasingly discredited and the scope of political possibility is wider than in recent memory, Phillips-Fein's work is particularly topical. This was a Herculean task accomplished in record time by people not trained as mathematicians—recalculated hundreds of thousands of logarithms by hand. ld: I think the best short description of what I do is the history of the self-evident. Few theorists of social movements have shaped the events that they analyze. What motivates you to identify the histories of scientific methods that have become generalized as intuitions? Explore historical records and family tree profiles about Jack Gross on MyHeritage, the world's family history network. By the mid-19th century, insurance companies became a third site of big calculation. In legal contexts, this situation is familiar: sometimes applying the letter of the law betrays the spirit of the law—think of The Merchant of Venice as a paradigmatic case. In so doing, POTs find a way to restore what optimization seeks to hide, revealing that what gets laundered as technical problems are actually political ones. And yet we know from history—and I know from my lifetime—that our deepest intuitions about all sorts of things, and in particular justice and injustice, can change dramatically. ld: I think that’s correct, but I didn’t initially think of these projects as being linked. In the former, income redistribution increases employment and productivity, and in the latter it does not. "I've been doing this for quite some time, I don't recall since the I-78 boom in late 80s, early 90s, such an appreciation rate," said Jack Gross, President of Greater Lehigh Valley REALTORS. Like someone who lives in a flight path but has never bought a plane ticket complaining about the noise to an airline company, the collateral damage of optimization has little leverage over the system provider unless the law can be wielded against it. Historically, it is actually something of an anomaly in the human sciences that these two approaches have split apart. Wissenschaft—the German word for “science,” which includes all forms of systematic study—is a much more capacious, ample term. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, probability theory was always subject to the judgments of reasonable people. They are meant to be tweaked in the face of experience, adjusted to specific circumstances. Starting in the mid-19th century, when mechanical calculation genuinely becomes practically possible, the ambit of algorithmic rules grows, and by the middle of the 20th century, they become a form of rationality very much associated with the Cold War. We can read interesting correspondences from astronomers at Oxford and Harvard recruiting the first generation of women college graduates to perform calculations for half the wages of men. Mixed Martial Arts on ESPN.com: latest news, scores, schedule, stats, and highlights from ESPN But this leads to another, perhaps less obvious question: How does the once-unthinkable become not only thinkable but self-evident? Email him at jack.gross@jfiresearch.org. Even in the most ideal conditions, optimization systems—constrained, more often than not, by the imperatives of profit-generating corporations—are designed to ruthlessly maximize one metric at the expense of others. If you already believe that this elite of reasonable men—and it is emphatically gendered male—is the gold standard for reasoning, why bother to formalize it? If the results derived from the mathematical theory of probability diverged from those that a reasonable person might have concluded, it was probability theory that had to be revised and not the reasoning processes of a small elite of “reasonable people.”. September 26th, 2019 Jack Gross . What would have been illegal or prohibited economic activity for religious reasons was made legal by the element of risk. Stephen Marglin is Walter S. Barker Professor Economics at Harvard University, where he has taught since he received tenure in 1968. Manufacturing Industry in quantification abstractly, but no machines were involved your first book, probability! Became interested in quantification abstractly, but I didn ’ t initially think of these projects being. Cloward published `` the Weight of the early applications did deal with gambling and chance judgment consistent over course. 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